"this is new research and different from old uses of naltronex"Yes and that is what I am talking about."And yes, yur serotonin is important as a communicator as that's what it does I think although I'm not an expert in neurotransmitters" Yes it is very important because serotonin is a pain signaler from the gut to the brain.
"If it's a commucator it communicates something and might communicate that opiod mechanisms aren't working right in IBS. serotonin is not a magic answer, it's a communicator. "I did not say it was the magic answer, it is very important however in its role in the system of the gut and pain and the release of endorphines to the gut.Its a pain communicater from the gut to the brain once again. That is important."What would be an example of new understanding?Well one example is that we're starting to understand how the brain is responding to the pain in IBS. There have been some studies done where they've artificially created a kind of an irritable bowel by placing a balloon to stretch the bowel, and that produces pain. Then they've compared people with IBS to non-IBS, or "normal" individuals. And what they've found is that when you stretch the bowel-and use PET scans to monitor the response-in normal individuals, certain areas of the brain that register pain respond and release chemicals called neurotransmitters that suppress and lower the pain. But it seems that doesn't happen as well in people with IBS. In fact, in people with IBS another area of the brain responds that is associated with anxiety. So what we find is that people with IBS, aside from having a bowel problem, may have some difficulty in terms of the way their brain is regulating the pain." http://www.aboutibs.org/Publications/clinicalIssues.html
"Chemical imbalance:"There may be increased excitability of the nervous system of the gut and disturbance of chemicals such as catecholamines and serotonin. Patients with IBS have increased serotonin levels in plasma and in the colon. This may cause an altered pain threshold in patients with IBS." http://www.gutdoc.com/ibs.html
"The neurotransmitter serotonin and 5-HT3 receptors that are extensively distributed on enteric neurons in the human gastrointestinal tract as well as other peripheral and central locations are thought to play a role in increasing the sensation of pain and affecting bowel function in patients with IBS."This last one is older and they know more now. This is why lortronex, blocks serotonin and the gut level and decreses pain in IBS.!
Which they have seen through fmri and pet scans with people taking the drug."The relationship between pain and depression clearly is complex and still emerging. Recent research shows that serotonin and norepinephrine may modulate pain as well as mood. Understanding the shared pathophysiology of these phenomena will help clinicians to manage both conditions and ultimately help their patients to achieve remission. This Clinical Update will detail the epidemiologic, neurobiologic, and pharmacologic correlates of pain and depression. " http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/441743
"New from Digestive disease week."Opioid AntagonistsAssuming opioid tone is increased in constipation-predominant IBS, opioid antagonists theoretically could reduce delays in intestinal transit and therefore relieve symptoms. Hawkes and colleagues 27 evaluated the efficacy of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week pilot study of 28 22 female patients with constipation-predominant IBS. These investigators prescribed 10-mg enteric-release naloxone tablets twice daily or identical placebo. They found that 43% of patients in the naloxone group were responders compared with 25% in the placebo group, based on the end point of adequate relief. Quality of life also improved. Surprisingly, no change in stool form or frequency was observed, suggesting that any prokinetic effect was very modest. These promising results need replication in larger, controlled trials, but do suggest that this class of agents may represent a novel and safe approach for at least a subset of patients with IBS.""*This section mentions off label uses for some medications. These may describe clinical uses for medications that have not been approved by the FDA.as for the link http://www.medscape.com/viewprogram/2379
"Itch."Yosipovitch G, Greaves MW, Schmelz M.Lancet 2003;361:690-4.Itch is a common skin sensation, with substantial effects on behaviour. Neurophysiological research has permitted accurate definition of neural pathways of itch, and has confirmed the distinctiveness of itch pathways in comparison with pain. A clinical classification of itch, based on such improved understanding, describes the difference between peripheral pruritoceptive and central neurogenic or neuropathic itch. New specific and sensitive investigational methods in people and animals enable us to better understand this bothersome symptom, and have important clinical implications. We describe the clinical classification of itch, new findings on neuropathophysiology of itch, methods for assessment, and improved treatments."