Beyond abuse: the association among parenting style, abdominal pain, and somatization in IBS patients Jeffrey M. Lackner, , a, Gregory D. Gudleskia and Edward B. Blanchardb This study says "Fathers whose parenting style was marked by hostility and rejection may have failed to provide the requisite care that would both protect their children from exposure to abusive experiences and buffer them against long-term health effects, including stress-mediated problems"" Physiologically, prolonged periods of early adversity (even "benign" conditions that do not involve abuse and neglect) can result in blunted HPA function (e.g., lowered basal levels of plasma cortisol) ( [Gunnar and Vazquez, 2001]) observed in patients with IBS and comorbid stress-related somatic complaints ( [Munakata, Mayer, Chang, Schmulson, Liu and Tougas, 1998]). The seemingly paradoxical phenomenon of hypocorticalism associated with either trauma or chronic "early stress experiences" ( [Heim, Ehlert and Hellhammer, 2000]) may potentiate stress-related somatic complaints by restricting a hormone (cortisol) whose secretion has a protective effect on the brain as part of the normal allostatic response to stress ( [Cicchetti and Toth, 1995 and McEwen, 1988]). Psychologically, children raised in cold, unsupportive and or neglectful family environments may have greater difficulty regulating emotions; developing adequate social problem solving skills for negotiating stress and conflict; and exhibit greater hypervigilance to threat cues than other children. While preoccupation with safety concerns, hypervigilance to threat cues and an information processing style oriented to threat appraisals is essential and adaptive in the face of potential danger at home, their overreliance may restrict the array of problem solving responses for problems ( [Cicchetti and Toth, 1995]) whose resolution necessitates greater coping flexibility and variability than functional GI disorder patients have ( [Cheng, Hui and Lam, 2000])."I am so glad that this study says paternal parenting style is more associated with IBS than abuse. There was no sexual abuse in my family.But my father was very cold to me(he never initiated conversations with me in my teenage years, he was very disappointed when I was born because I was a girl) and hostile to me in my teenage years whenever I spoke to him . And I am hypervigilant to threat cues because of him. In my house, hearing my father cough was a cue that threat was imminent because he coughed usually to make his presence known when he entered the house.I wonder how many of you had problems with your fathers?